Tumors consist of a mixture of neoplastic epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and immune cells, which collectively form the tumor microenvironment. The association of immune cell infiltrates with prognosis, in various types of cancer, has been demonstrated in a large number of publications (see Nature Reviews Cancer 2012, Fridman et al.). The complex interplay between these cells including the type, density, location and immune functions, is implicated in disease progression, metastasis, and drug response/resistance and form the paradigm of the immune contexture (Galon J et al. Science 2006).
Comprehensive Intrametastatic Immune Quantification and Major Impact of Immunoscore on Survival.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2018 ;
Jan 1;110(1). doi: 10.1093
Density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes correlates with extent of brain edema and overall survival time in patients with brain metastases.
Oncoimmunology 2016 ;
Rational bases for the use of the Immunoscore in routine clinical settings as a prognostic and predictive biomarker in cancer patients
Int Immunol. 2016
Biomarkers immune monitoring technology primer: Immunoscore® Colon
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2016
Validation of the Immunoscore (IM) as a prognostic marker in stage I/II/III colon cancer: Results of a worldwide consortium-based analysis of 1,336 patients.
2016 ASCO Annual Meeting
J Clin Oncol 34, 2016 (suppl; abstr 3500)
Integrative Analyses of Colorectal Cancer Show Immunoscore Is a Stronger Predictor of Patient Survival Than Microsatellite Instability.
Immunity. 2016 ;
The tumor microenvironment and Immunoscore are critical determinants of dissemination to distant metastasis.
Sci Transl Med. 2016 ;
24 Feb 2016, Vol. 8, Issue 327, pp. 327ra26.
Towards the introduction of the 'Immunoscore' in the classification of malignant tumours
J Pathol. 2014
Cancer classification using the Immunoscore: a worldwide task force.
J Transl Med 2012 ;
10 : 205.
Histopathologic-based prognostic factors of colorectal cancers are associated with the state of the local immune reaction.
J Clin Oncol 2011 ;
29 : 610-8.
In situ cytotoxic and memory T cells predict outcome in patients with early-stage colorectal cancer.
J Clin Oncol 2009 ;
27 : 5944-51.
Type, density, and location of immune cells within human colorectal tumors predict clinical outcome.
Science 2006 ;
313 : 1960-4.